A caregiver’s guide to prostate cancer
prostate cancer awareness and caregiving information

Prostate cancer is highly treatable. You will hear over and over again that men die with prostate cancer, not of prostate cancer. You might be shocked to discover how many men you know have had prostate cancer or are living with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer for men worldwide.

1 in 6 American men is diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetimes. The vast majority — almost 100% — of men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are still alive 5 years later.

1 in 36 will die of prostate cancer.

Nearly 3 million men in America are living with prostate cancer.

Every cancer is unique. Your treatment team will figure out how to treat your specific type of cancer.

We don’t get cancer in a vacuum — most prostate cancer patients have other conditions or disabilities to contend with as well. Other health issues can complicate things, changing how you respond to treatment and what treatments are safe for you.

Many people are successfully treated and undergo periodic prostate cancer treatments for the rest of their lives. It’s not uncommon for prostate cancer patients to live for decades with the disease.

prostate cancer is a concern for every man

Understanding prostate cancer

Diagnosis, indicators, and other tests

Prostate cancer typically doesn’t cause any symptoms in its early stages. Most men will never experience any symptoms of prostate cancer. Those who do may notice:

  • Frequent or burning urination
  • Difficulty in having or maintaining an erection
  • Pain when ejaculating
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs

Those symptoms could have myriad causes, so your doctor will conduct tests before giving you a diagnosis.

Early diagnosis of prostate cancer does not necessarily reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. Small, asymptomatic tumors may be developing so slowly that they effectively present no risk.

Some men with prostate cancer may never know about their cancer before they die of natural causes or from another cause. Detecting non-threatening tumors is considered overdiagnosis and treating these non-threatening tumors is over-treatment. Because diagnosis and treatment all carry risks, over-diagnosis and over-treatment can cause problems for men and their loved ones.

Prostate Specific Antigen Test

The PSA test is a blood test that checks for an antigen that is elevated in men with prostate cancer. The PSA is used both as a diagnostic tool and to monitor the progression of prostate cancer.

There are other benign conditions that can elevate the PSA score, so a high score does not mean you have prostate cancer. Not all men with prostate cancer have elevated PSA levels. Of men who have an elevated PSA score, only 25% of biopsies show cancer. The other 75% of men with elevated PSA levels do not have cancer.

Doctors monitor PSA levels to look for changes in prostate cancer, to see if it’s progressing, and to see if it’s recurred. An elevated PSA level may be the first sign of a prostate cancer relapse. There is no official normal amount of PSA and PSA levels can fluctuate. Types of cancer treatments and UTIs can change PSA levels.

While PSA levels aren’t a foolproof way to diagnose and monitor prostate cancer, the generally strong correlation between PSA levels and prostate cancer make it an important tool.

The American Cancer Society provides more information to help you understand your PSA levels.

Digital Rectal Exam

During a DRE, your doctor will feel your prostate with his or her finger. Doctors are looking for bumps or hard areas. An exam can help determine if cancer is on one side, both sides, or if it’s likely to have spread beyond the prostate. A DRE relies on the subjective impressions of the doctor conducting the exam.

Transrectal ultrasound

During a TRUS, a small probe about the width of a finger is inserted into the rectum. Ultrasounds use sound waves to create echos and turn them into an image of the inside of your body. A TRUS is usually done at your doctor’s office or an outpatient clinic and only takes about 10 minutes. It feels weird, but shouldn’t be painful. If you do experience any pain, the doctor can numb the area.

A newer alternative to TRUS is a Doppler ultrasound. This measures blood flow within the prostate gland. Prior to a Doppler ultrasound, some doctors will inject you with a contrast agent.

Prostate Cancer Biopsy: The smaller malignant glands (acini) of prostatic adenocarcinoma (upper left) show invasion around and between the larger benign glands (lower right).

Prostate Cancer Biopsy: The smaller malignant glands (acini) of prostatic adenocarcinoma (upper left) show invasion around and between the larger benign glands (lower right).

Prostate biopsy

During a core needle biopsy, your urologist will insert hollow needles into the prostate to collect tissue samples. A transrectal biopsy goes through the wall of the rectum. A transperineal biopsy goes through the skin between the scrotum and the anus. It’s uncomfortable, but not painful. Your doctor will usually numb the area first and each sample is taken in a fraction of a second. The procedure usually takes about 10 minutes. Your doctor will usually give you antibiotics to take before the procedure to reduce the risk of infection.

Doctors sometimes use an ultrasound to view the prostate while taking tissue samples. They may also use an MRI. This helps the doctors make sure the tissue samples they are collecting are from areas they are concerned about.

Afterward you’ll be sore and may notice blood in your urine or from your rectum. Blood in your semen may persist for weeks after the biopsy.

Tissue from the biopsy is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells. The findings are written up in your pathology report. Because your prostate may contain cancer and the needles may not take a sample of that area of the biopsy, your doctor may do more than one biopsy if he or she is concerned about false-negative results.

The pathology report will say how many samples were taken and how many contained cancer. It’ll say what percentage of each sample was made up of cancer cells. It will also say if the cancer is on one or both sides of your prostate.

Some cells may appear abnormal, but not cancerous. These suspicious areas are called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Low-grade PIN looks mostly normal, high-grade PIN looks mostly abnormal. When high-grade PIN is found, 1 in 5 men will have cancer somewhere in their prostate, so doctors will conduct another biopsy.

When atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) is detected, a few cells look cancerous, but there aren’t enough of them to be certain. Doctors will conduct another biopsy, usually after a few months.

Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) is when prostate cells are unusually small and there’s inflammation. It’s believed that PIA increases your risk for high-grade PIN or possibly prostate cancer.

The American Cancer Society has a guide to understanding your pathology report.

If your doctor suspects the cancer may have spread outside your prostate, they’ll use imaging to see. If the likelihood that your cancer has spread is extremely low, they may decide not to put you through the hassle, discomfort, and expense of testing.

Gleason Score

Your Gleason score is a simple way to capture your cancer’s clinical stage and grade, using a number between 2 and 10. This is composed of your two Gleason grades. Normal prostate tissue is a grade 1, very abnormal tissue is a 5. Most cancers have a Gleason grade of 3 or higher.

Because prostate cancers have different areas with different grades, grades are assigned for the two areas that make up most of the cancer. The highest Gleason grade is always included, even if it’s just a tiny spot. These grades are then added together to form the Gleason score, or Gleason sum.

A Gleason score of 6 or lower is low-grade, 7 is considered intermediate-grade, and 8 to 10 is high-grade.

Lymph node biopsy

Sometimes a lymph node biopsy is done as a separate procedure, usually when the prostate is going to be left in place but it’s suspected that the cancer might have spread to your lymph nodes. With a laparoscopic biopsy a long tube with a camera and tools are inserted through small incisions in your abdomen. Recovery usually takes only a day or two and you’ll have very small scars. With fine needle aspiration (FNA) a sample of your cells from an enlarged lymph node will be taken using a long needle inserted through your skin. Your skin will be numbed with a local anesthetic. Generally, they’ll keep you in the clinic for a few hours after the procedure, but you should feel back to normal in a day or two.

Computed tomography scan

A CT scan makes cross-sectional images of your body using x-rays. This helps doctors see if the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes, pelvis, or organs.

Bone Scan

Prostate cancer is known for spreading to lymph nodes and then the bones. Often it spreads to people’s lower spine. A bone scan is used to see if cancer has spread to your bones, before it causes damage and pain.

You’ll be injected with a small amount of radioactive material, which will settle in damaged areas of your bones. A picture is taken of your skeleton. This can identify suspicious areas, but doctors will use x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or biopsies to make a diagnosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging

An MRI scan uses radio waves and magnets to create a images of the soft tissues in your body. They’ll sometimes inject you with a contrast material, gadolinium, to see things clearer. An MRI can provide a clear picture of the prostate and the area around it. Sometimes they’ll insert a probe, an endorectal coil, into your rectum for the scan. You can opt to be sedated if they use the probe, as it can be very uncomfortable.

Deciding on a treatment regimen

Bring a notebook and take detailed notes when discussing treatment options with your medical team. Don’t be shy about asking them to repeat information or spell a term. You may even want to record the conversations, with their permission. Even incredibly smart people with excellent memories find themselves overwhelmed with information. It’s different when it’s your life they’re talking about. The American Cancer Society has a list of questions you should ask your doctor.

Getting a second or third opinion can seem exhausting, but it’s an excellent way to make sure you’re aware of all of your options and making the best choice for you. Your urologist, oncologist, and GP may all provide you with different information about risk factors and recovery time — they each have a different expertise and talking to all of them about the options gives you the most complete picture.

There are many factors to look at when developing a treatment plan. Doctors who have different opinions aren’t necessarily wrong, because there is rarely one right answer when it comes to treatment.

Do you have to act now?

Prostate cancer typically takes years to develop to the point where it’s detectable. You can take the time you need to make a decision about what treatment to pursue, as a few days or weeks is unlikely to change the outcome. It can be very upsetting when patients are told to wait a month for an MRI or for treatment to begin. While the waiting can be incredibly stressful, your treatment team knows it’s safe to not rush into action.

If you are elderly or in ill-health, it may be unlikely that prostate cancer will advance to the point where it’s a danger before you die from something else. In this case, you may be able to safely skip the side-effects of radiation and surgery. Instead, your doctors can make sure cancer symptoms don’t impact your quality of life. Cancer can be viewed as a chronic disease that can be managed.

If you have a slow growing cancer that’s been detected early, you may not need to treat your cancer right away. Some men can live with prostate cancer for decades before deciding to treat it. Some men may never need to treat their prostate cancer. Leaving prostate cancer untreated is not a death sentence or an act of suicide. You can talk to your treatment team about treatment options, side effects, and overtreatment and decide what you need to do to live the life you’d like to live.

When prostate cancer is detected before it has spread, it appears that surgery, external radiation, and brachytherapy all have similar cure rates. Newer types of treatment, like da Vinci robotic surgery and proton beam radiation, appear promising but have much less research and long-term data. This makes comparing treatment options as much art as science.

What’s important to you?

Do you need to act now and go big to fight against cancer? Are you comfortable putting off treatment and seeing your doctor regularly to monitor your cancer?

Do you need to know right away if surgery has removed all of the cancer? Are you comfortable waiting weeks or months to see if radiation works?

Do you want to choose treatment options that are well established and backed up by lots of research? Are you eager to go with the latest and most cutting-edge treatments?

How would you feel if you became incontinent, had bowel problems, or erectile dysfunction?

Do you have a support network in place to help you during recovery from surgery or during treatment? Are you in good enough health to be a candidate for surgery? Do you have other conditions or chronic illnesses that would complicate treatment?

Is the cancer likely to spread and cause you problems before you’d die of old age?

researching prostate cancer treatment options

Common Treatments

Every treatment carries certain risks and side effects. Even the most effective treatments overall may not be effective for you. Try to figure out which side effect profile you are most comfortable with. Remember that you and your family are the ones who have to live with the outcome of your treatment, not your doctor.

Prostate cancer patients who opt for active treatment will use a combination of therapies.

Common treatment options by stage

Stage IWatchful waiting

Radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy

Stage IIRadical prostatectomy

External beam radiation and brachytherapy, alone or combined

Stage IIICombinations of external beam radiation, hormone therapy, brachytherapy, and radical prostatectomy
Stage IVWatchful waiting

Hormone therapy, sometimes with chemotherapy

Combinations of external beam radiation, brachytherapy, and hormone therapy

Radical prostatectomy

TURP surgery

Bone metastases treatments

Watchful waiting

Cancer treatment has come a long way — today’s treatments are more effective and have fewer side effects. However, treatment can still be difficult to endure and have a huge negative impact on your life. Many instances of prostate cancer advance very slowly, meaning the cancer will not spread or grow large enough to impact your life before you die from another cause.

If you have a non-aggressive cancer and it has not spread, many doctors will suggest active surveillance. So long as the cancer does not grow or spread, people can live their lives without the negative impact of cancer treatment. If the cancer eventually grows or spreads, you can work with your treatment team to choose how to respond.

With active surveillance, your doctor will typically run tests every 6 months. Tests often include your PSA blood test and a digital rectal exam. Doctors may perform annual biopsies. Even if you ultimately do undergo treatment, you can enjoy additional months or years of life without worrying about side effects. Men who undergo watchful waiting have the same life expectancy as those who pursue treatment immediately.

Hormone inhibitors

Some prostate cancer tumors are fed by testosterone, so by blocking it you can starve the tumors. This is through reducing hormone levels, also known as androgen deprivation therapy.

  • Hormone therapy can be used before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor
  • Hormone therapy is used when the cancer has spread
  • Hormone therapy and radiation may be used together to reduce the risk of cancer coming back
  • Adjuvant hormone therapy reduces the chances of high-risk prostate cancer from coming back after a curative treatment

Hormone inhibitors may be pills, injections, or small implants under the skin. Lupron is one of the most common hormone therapy drugs. These keep the body from making hormone. Needles can be anxiety inducing, but the side effects are generally mild. Some people do have side effects that are serious enough that treatment will be stopped.

Hormone therapy tends to decrease in effectiveness after 2-3 years. In order to account for this, some oncologists will have you start and stop therapy. This is called intermittent androgen deprivation.

With an orchiectomy the testicles are removed through a small cut in the scrotum. Most of the male hormones are made in the testicles. This is an outpatient procedure with low risks of complications. However, after surgery men typically have very little sexual desire and aren’t able to have erections. Many men will have hot flashes afterward, which usually go away quickly, but may persist.

Side effects vary widely based on the hormone treatment used and how your body responds to it. Common side effects include loss of sex drive, impotence, hot flashes, shrinking of the penis and testicles, breast tenderness and growth, thinning bones (osteoporosis), weight gain, loss of muscle mass, and an increased risk of circulation problems.

The American Cancer Society has information on what treatment options are still available if your cancer does not respond to hormone therapy.


Radiation, or radiotherapy, uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. It can be used to shrink tumors, relieve symptoms, and reduce the spread of cancer.

People respond to radiation very differently. Some people find themselves overwhelmed with exhaustion and requiring significant help from family and friends. Other people continue to work through treatment. The fatigue subsides a month or two after treatment ends.

Radiation damages the cancer cells, but it also damages healthy cells nearby. The main short-term side effects of radiation include redding of the skin, diarrhea, and difficulty urinating. It’s not uncommon to see blood in your urine or stool. Some patients develop radiation cystitis. These side effects will usually go away shortly after treatment ends. Some people continue to experience problems with stool leakage even after treatment ends.

Radiation can cause bowel complications. It can also cause erectile dysfunction, although problems tend to develop in the future, rather than immediately, as with surgery to remove the prostate. Radiation can damage the nerves around the prostate, as well as the arteries that carry blood to the penis.

While undergoing treatment for radiation, your oncologist may advise you to not allow children to sit on your lap.

External Beam Radiation

EBR is typically a daily outpatient treatment. If you live near a cancer center, it could mean stopping by for 15 minutes a day. Treatment length can vary, but it’s typically around 7 to 9 weeks. In some cases, patients may need to undergo radiation as an inpatient procedure.

Imaging tests will be done to see where the cancer is, so the beams can be directed there. Radiation techs may mark the spot with ink or in another way. Two types of advanced radiation are 3D-conformal therapy (3D-CRT) and modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These reduce the damage to nearby tissues. Some oncologists will use proton beam radiation, also called proton therapy, which uses proton beams instead of x-rays. This is thought to reduce damage to nearby tissues, although the evidence is currently inconclusive.

Brachytherapy Seeds

With high dose radiation (HDR), also known as brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy, radioactive material is inserted into your prostate to kill the cancer. Your surgeon will use a transrectal ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to place the material in the right spot.

With short-term brachytherapy, tubes are inserted into the skin of the perineum and into the prostate. Your doctor will insert radioactive materials into the tubes, usually 3 times a day for 2 days. The treatment takes about 10 minutes each time.

With permanent brachytherapy, also known as seed implants, radioactive pellets are surgically inserted directly into the prostate. Up to 100 seeds, each the size of a grain of rice, are put into the tumor. They’ll give off radiation for weeks or months and over time will stop being radioactive. They typically don’t cause discomfort because the seeds are so small.

While you’re undergoing brachytherapy, you may need to stay away from small children, pregnant women, and pets. Some people experience burning, pain, or diarrhea, but these are relatively rare.

They can also use gel to physically move the prostate away from the other nearby organs, reducing damage to those organs.

This treatment option reduces the likelihood of impotence from alternate treatments, like the prostatectomy. Recovery is easier, compared to having your prostate removed.

High-intensity focused ultrasound

HIFU is relatively new to the US. It kills cancer cells with ultrasonic beams.


Chemotherapy is used to shrink tumors. It may be used on its own or it may be used to shrink tumors so they’re easier to remove with surgery. If the tumor can’t be removed, chemo can slow tumor growth and reduce symptoms, increasing your quality of life and lifespan.

Chemo may come as a pill or through an IV, or a needle in your vein. Since chemo goes through your bloodstream, it can damage cells throughout your body. Your oncologist will try to make the chemo strong enough to kill cancer cells without destroying too many healthy cells. Popular chemotherapies for prostate cancer include docetaxel (Taxotere) and cabazitaxel (Jevtana).

Prostate cancer patients may feel that chemo side effects aren’t as bad as they expect. There are many types of chemo, varying doses, and different frequencies, all with their own side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, taste changes, and exhaustion.

Prostate cancer vaccine

Sipuleucel-T, or Provenge, is an FDA approved vaccine used to treat advanced prostate cancer that isn’t responding to hormone therapy. The prostate cancer vaccine is not mass-produced, so it’s made for each person who gets it.

Side effects typically only last a day or two, including fever, chills, fatigue, back pain, joint pain, nausea, and headache. Some men will experience problems breathing and high blood pressure.

Prostate surgery

Prostate cancer surgery has a high success rate, although the potential for side effects is high. The potential for incontinence and erectile dysfunction can cause major quality of life concerns and have a major impact on the self-esteem of prostate cancer survivors.

Regaining bladder control can take 6 months or more. You will have to exercise your bladder muscles to hold your urine, but you may experience leakage when your bladder is very full or when coughing or sneezing. Some men never fully regain control of their bladder. This can be managed through medication.

About 40% of men will not be able to achieve an erection, maintain an erection, or have a strong enough erection for sexual activity. You can start trying to have erections about 6 weeks after surgery. This is called penile rehabilitation. Loss of the ability to have an erection may not be permanent, as it may come back after as long as two years. Generally, the younger and healthier you are, the more likely it is that you’ll be able to maintain erections after prostate surgery.

Ejaculation becomes impossible after surgery, but this doesn’t mean you can’t have an orgasm. In fact, you can orgasm without having an erection. There are a variety of medications and devices that can help you resume an active sex life after prostate surgery, with or without erections.

Some factors make certain people more likely to need radiation in addition to surgery or even after surgery.

Like any surgery, the use of anesthesia and pain medication carries risk. All surgeries carry the risk of infection.

Radical prostatectomy

When surgeons talk about ‘radical’ surgery, they’re talking about ‘the root’ — meaning that a radical surgery removes the entire tumor and some of the tissue around it.

With retropubic surgery, an incision will be made in your lower belly. During retropubic surgery, your doctor will remove lymph nodes near the prostate to check them for cancer. Sometimes doctors will check the lymph nodes for cancer right then, called a frozen section exam. If they do contain cancer, your doctor may not remove the prostate and will instead talk to you about other treatment options. Usually the lymph nodes are simply removed and sent to a lab to be examined later.

If the bundle of nerves on either side of the prostate, which are needed for erections, have not been impacted by the cancer, your surgeon will leave them. This is what they mean when they talk about ‘nerve sparing’ surgery. Nerve sparing surgery does not guarantee that you’ll be able to have and maintain an erection after surgery, but it does improve your chances.

With perineal surgery, your doctor will make an incision between your scrotum and your anus, known as the perineum. This type of surgery is more likely to damage your nerves, but it is often a shorter operation.

With laparoscopic surgery, your surgery will be done through several small cuts, usually 4 small incisions in the abdomen. A camera and special instruments will be used to remove your prostate. The da Vinci system and SMART surgery are two types of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostate removal.

After a radical prostatectomy, you’ll usually have a catheter for about a month. You’ll also experience pain after surgery, but your treatment team should be ready with a pain management plan to keep you comfortable during recovery.

You may be given postoperative radiotherapy (XRT). XRT increases survival rates in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Internal soreness from XRT can last months, either from the radiation itself or scar tissue forming from surgery. People with XRT are also more prone to UTIs, so it’s important to stay hydrated.


With cryosurgery, also called cryoblation, your tumor is killed by freezing it. Long, thin needles are inserted into your perineum and into the tumor. They’re then filled with very cold gasses, freezing the tumor. The surgeon will use a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to guide the needles into position. Men who undergo cryosurgery are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction.

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

TURP does not treat the cancer, but it does make it easier to live with the cancer. Some tumors grow to block the urethra, making it difficult or impossible to urinate. This surgery removes the blockage. This is a good option for men who aren’t able to have a radical prostatectomy and are having difficulty urinating.


AJCC TNM staging

The American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system describes how far the cancer has spread. It’s made up of:

  • The primary Tumor
  • The status of the lymph Nodes
  • Whether the cancer has Metastasized
  • The PSA level at diagnosis
  • The Gleason score

The clinical stage is based on your doctor’s estimate from the DRE, lab tests, biopsy, and imaging. If you’ve had surgery, the doctor can determine the pathologic stage.

Tumor staging

  • T1: No tumor can be seen or felt
    • T1a: Cancer is found during a TURP and is less than 5% of the tissue
    • T1b: Cancer is found during a TURP and is more than 5% of the tissue
    • T1c: Cancer is found by needle biopsy
  • T2: The tumor can be seen and/or felt, but is confined to the prostate
    • T2a: The cancer is in one half or less of one side of your prostate
    • T2b: The cancer is more than one half of only one side of your prostate
    • T2c: The cancer is in both sides of your prostate
  • T3: The cancer has grown outside of your prostate
    • T3a: The cancer is outside the prostate, but not in the seminal vesicles
    • T3b: The cancer is in the seminal vesicles
  • T4: The cancer has spread to your urethral sphincter, recutm, bladder, and/or pelvis

Lymph node staging

  • NX: Lymph nodes have not been tested
  • N0: Cancer has not spread to any nearby lymph nodes
  • N1: Cancer has spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes

Metastasis staging

  • M0: Cancer has not spread beyond nearby lymph nodes
  • M1: Cancer has spread beyond nearby lymph nodes
    • M1a: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes outside your pelvis
    • M1b: Cancer has spread to your bones
    • M1c: Cancer has spread to other organs

TMN stages

You can view the TMN classification for prostate cancer on Medscape.

Stage I

Stage I prostate cancers are small and fully contained in the prostate. They have a low PSA level and a Gleason score of 6 or less. They grow slowly and may never cause any symptoms or health problems.

If you are young and healthy, you may opt for watchful waiting, knowing you may need to treat your cancer at some point in the future. Some people want to treat their cancer right away and go forward with radiation therapy or have their prostate removed. Men who are elderly or in ill health often choose to monitor their cancer and may escape having to ever treat it.

Stage II

Stage II prostate cancers are still contained in the prostate, but are more aggressive. They are larger, have higher Gleason scores, and have higher PSA levels. Stage II cancers are more likely to eventually spread and cause symptoms.

Active surveillance is still an excellent option for Stage II cancers, especially when it’s not causing any symptoms. Men who are elderly or ill often choose to skip treatment, as they are unlikely to suffer any ill effects from the prostate cancer.

Men who are young, healthy, and/or want to treat their cancer may decide to have their prostate removed or treat the cancer with radiation.

Stage III

At this point, the cancer has spread outside the prostate, but it hasn’t gone very far. At this point, most people will have their prostate removed, get radiation, or have hormone therapy. While it hasn’t yet spread to lymph nodes, it’s now considered more likely to come back after treatment, even if it’s successful. Some people with stage III prostate cancer will still decide that watchful waiting or less aggressive treatment is the best choice for them.

Stage IV

Stage IV prostate cancer has spread out of the prostate and into other areas. It may be in your bladder or rectum, to nearby lymph nodes, or in other organs. Any place the cancer has spread outside of your pelvis is considered ‘distant.’ Your experience and prognosis will be very different, depending on how far the cancer has spread and where it has metastasized.

While sometimes stage IV prostate cancer can be cured, most of the time you will have cancer the rest of your life. Many men live with incurable prostate cancer for years and can continue enjoying their lives. At this point, most doctors will aim to shrink the tumors and keep the cancer from spreading further. They will also provide you with treatment in order to improve your quality of life — so you can continue spending time with your family, working, and enjoying hobbies — and make sure you aren’t in pain.

Bone metastasis

Prostate cancer nearly always spreads from the lymph nodes to the bones. Once cancer has spread to the bones, it can cause fractures, breaks, and intense pain. If you have extreme pain in your lower back or hips, you should go to the ER immediately. Doctors can help stabilize your bone structure and manage your pain. The American Cancer Society has information on managing cancer pain.

Bone metastasis, while serious, it is not likely to kill you. People can live for years after cancer has metastasized in their bones. High blood calcium levels can be dangerous.

There are specific treatments for prostate cancer once it’s reached your bones.

Bisphosphonates slow down bone cells called osteoclasts. Osteoclasts can become overactive when you have prostate cancer, so bisphosphonates can help relieve pain and high calcium levels, slow the growth of cancer, and help strengthen bones if you’re getting hormone therapy. The most common bisphosphonate is zoledronic acid, or Zometa. You’ll get this through an IV about once a month, along with supplements for calcium and vitamin D.

Bisphosphonates can leave you feeling like you have the flu. They may aggravate any joint or bone pain you’re already having. They can also cause kidney problems, so make sure your whole treatment team knows about any kidney problems you might have.

The most serious side effect from bisphosphonates is osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). This is rare, but can lead to tooth loss and jaw infections, so you should have a dental checkup before you start treatment. You should not have any dental work done during treatment and you should carefully floss, brush, and get regular dental checkups. You can learn more about ONJ from the team at Savor Health.

Denosumab, also known as Xgeva or Prolia, also blocks osteoclasts. It can help prevent fractures and slow the spread of cancer. It’s frequently used for men when bisphosphonates and hormone therapy aren’t working as well as they should. It’s typically injected once a month, along with calcium and vitamin D supplements. Denosumab can cause nausea, diarrhea, and leave you feeling exhausted. It also puts you at risk for ONJ.

Radiopharmaceuticals kill cancer cells in your bones. They’re administered through an IV and settle into damaged areas of your bones, so they reach cancer in your bones throughout your body. The most common radiopharmaceuticals are strontium-89 (Metastron), samarium-153 (Quadramet), and radium-223 (Xofigo). These drugs decrease your blood cell count, which puts you at risk for infections and you have to be very careful about bleeding. Different drugs can cause different side effects, so ask your treatment team what to expect.

Clinical trials

In order to gain FDA approval, treatments must go through clinical trials. Clinical trials give you access to the latest treatment options and methods of controlling side effects. However, there’s no guarantee that these treatments will work, be worthwhile, or be safe. Your doctor can help you decide if the risk of a clinical trial makes sense for you.

Cancer.net is an excellent resource for learning about how clinical trials work and finding clinical trails recruiting participants.

Other conditions

Half of all adults in the US have a chronic disease or condition. Other conditions may limit your ability to tolerate treatment options and make certain procedures unsafe for you.

Your treatment team will let you know how your concurrent conditions impact your cancer and treatment options. If treating or managing both simultaneously isn’t an option, your doctors will generally treat whichever condition is the most serious.


Prostate cancer is slightly less common in men with diabetes. Some diabetes drugs have even been shown to aid prostate cancer treatment. However, other studies show that men with diabetes have more serious cases of prostate cancer.

Heart disease

Men with heart disease are more likely to experience bowel and urinary problems after prostate cancer treatment. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also known as hormone therapy, may increase your heart attack risk.

Choosing a medical team

Prostate cancer is very common. Any large hospital will have an excellent staff, capable of providing you with top-level prostate cancer treatment.

If you decide to treat your prostate cancer, you will likely use several types of treatment, each with its own specialists. You may also require various experts to help you manage symptoms and treatment side effects.

doctor adjusting infusion

Your treatment team

General practitioner or family doctor

Your GP will continue to provide support and information, although he or she will likely take a back seat to your oncology/urology team. Your GP can be a fantastic resource for managing other conditions you have, as well as managing side effects.


Urologists are specialists in the urinary tract and reproductive organs. This includes the urethra, bladder, and kidneys. This includes treatments for cancer, incontinence, and sexual function.

If you’re about to go to your first urology appointment, you can learn what to expect.

It’s common for urologists to perform surgery:

  • Biopsies
  • Cystectomy
  • Prostatectomy
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate
  • Transurethral needle ablation of the prostate
  • Sling procedures
  • Opening blockages or making repairs

A urologist has completed a 4-year college degree, 4-years of medical school, and then 4-5 years of medical training at a hospital. A urology resident is undergoing this training in a hospital, but has already completed medical school. Urologists are certified by the American Board of Urology after completing a certification exam.

Urologic oncologist

A urologic oncologist is a urologist who specializes in cancer care. They treat:

  • Masses or tumors of the adrenal glands
  • Kidney masses, cysts, or cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Testicular cancer
  • Penile cancer

A urologic oncologist has completed all of the requirements to become a urologist and then completed an additional year or two of training in urologic oncology. A urology fellow is undergoing this additional training. Urologic oncologists are certified urologists; there is currently no additional certification for their specialization.

Medical oncologist

An oncologist is trained to diagnose, stage, and treat cancer. They specialize in using chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Your medical oncologist is often the best person to talk to when deciding on the right treatment for you. Your oncologist keeps up with the latest research and can connect you with clinical trials. Typically, your oncologist will be the point person for your cancer care and will coordinate with the rest of your medical team.

An oncologist can also help you manage symptoms and side effects. Your oncologist will also typically be the one to start palliative care or hospice care.

A medical oncologist has completed a 4-year college degree, 4-years of medical school, and then 4-5 years of medical training at a hospital. They are then licensed by the state to perform medical oncology.

Radiation oncologist

A radiation oncologist specializes in treating cancer with radiation. They can also help you choose between your treatment options and manage your side effects and symptoms.

A radiation oncologist has completed a 4-year college degree, 4-years of medical school, and then 4-5 years of medical training at a hospital. They must pass an exam from the American Board of Internal Medicine. Radiation oncologists must pass an exam to be certified by the American Board of Radiology. Certification must be renewed every 10 years.

Oncological surgeon

A surgical oncologist performs biopsies as well as removing tumors. They are critical for staging your cancer as accurately as possible.

A surgical oncologist has completed a 4-year college degree, 4-years of medical school, and then 4-5 years of medical training at a hospital. Surgeons who specialize in oncology are tested and certified by the American Board of Surgery.


A pathologist performs and interprets imaging tests, like x-rays, ultrasounds, and MRIs, to diagnose and monitor your cancer. They also examine tissue samples. They are important for making treatment recommendations.

A pathologist has completed a 4-year college degree, 4-years of medical school, and then 4 years of medical training at a hospital. They are certified by the American Society for Clinical Pathology. A pathologist who has a specialization has undergone an additional 1-2 years of training.

Pain specialist

A pain management specialist can evaluate, diagnose, and treat pain. There are a huge variety of types of pain, causes, and treatment options. A pain management specialist may also coordinate physical therapy, psychological therapy, and rehab.

A pain management specialist has completed a 4-year college degree, 4-years of medical school, and then 4 years of medical training at a hospital. They then completed at least one year of additional training in pain management. They may be certified by the American Board of Anesthesiology, The American Board of Psychiatry and The American Board of Neurology, or the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Oncology nurse

Nurses are a tremendous resource for education and support. They are often the primary point of care, rather than a doctor. Many nurses specialize in a certain type of care, such as in oncology or urology. A nurse may monitor your condition, prescribe medication, and administer treatment.

A nurse (RN) has completed a 4-year college degree and passed the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). An oncology nurse (OCN) has worked as a nurse for at least one year, with 1,000 or more hours in oncology, and been certified by the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation.

X-ray & radiology technician

An x-ray tech, or radiologic technician, uses special equipment to take images of the inside of your body. These images are then ready by a radiologist or pathologist.

An x-ray tech (RT) may have a 2- or 4-year degree run by a program accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) or The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). Certification by ARRT is not mandatory, but most medical centers require it. Most states also require that x-ray techs are licensed.

Oncology dietitian nutritionist

A registered dietitian who is a certified specialist in oncology nutrition (RD CSO) can help you manage the side effects and symptoms of prostate cancer and treatment. You can learn more about what to expect when working with an oncology dietitian and how to get the most out of working together.

Remember that anyone can call themselves a nutritionist. An RD has a 4-year college degree, 6-12 months of supervised training, and is certified by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Commission on Dietetic Registration. An RD CSO has 2,000 additional hours of oncology training and passes a certification exam every 5 years. Some registered dietitian nutritionists refer to themselves as RDs, others use the term RDN. They both indicate the same training and certification.


A pharmacist is an expert in knowing what each cancer medication is used for, potential side effects, and potential interactions. Your pharmacist knows all of the medications you take, as well as any supplements, so they may catch potential problems when different specialists prescribe medications that may interfere with each other or cause problems for other reasons.

A pharmacist completes both a 4-year undergraduate and a 2-year graduate degree. They are then licensed by the state.

Physical therapist

Physical therapy can help prostate cancer patients maintain strength, mobility, and function. With prostate cancer it can help offset bone weakening from hormone therapy.

Physical therapist assistants have a 2-year degree. A physical therapist will have a master’s degree or a doctoral degree from an accredited program. They are then licensed by the state.

Oncology social worker

A social worker can provide a wide range of counseling services and support for prostate cancer patients and their families. An oncology social worker will connect you to resources, help navigate health insurance coverage, and support you as you cope with the emotional aspects of cancer.

A social worker has a bachelor’s and master’s degree (MSW). They must pass the Association of Social Work Boards exam and meet other requirements to be licensed by the state.

Supporting treatment

The healthier you are, the better your chances are of beating cancer. Eating nutritious foods can help you manage side effects, reduce fatigue, and maintain your strength. Keep exercising, or start now.


While eating healthy is important, this isn’t the time to dramatically change your eating habits. If you suddenly go vegan or start juicing obsessively you can put yourself at risk for nutritional deficiencies — plus, you’re making your life more complicated during a difficult time.

This is a great time to start introducing small changes to what you eat to make things healthier. Eat a little less meat and a little more veggies. Substitute unhealthy snacks with a homemade version or a healthier option. The Savor Health website has lots of tips on how to do this and our cookbook has 150 recipes for you to try.

This is the time to stop smoking and cut back how much alcohol you drink.

Learn more about using what you eat, and how you eat, to manage your treatment side effects.


Exercise has been linked to an increased survival rate for some cancers, like breast cancer and colorectal cancer. While it hasn’t been specifically studied for prostate cancer, which already has a very high survival rate, evidence suggests it could be helpful. Studies suggest brisk walking has a positive impact on prostate tumors. We know that people who are active have a lower rate of aggressive prostate cancers.

Learn more about how you can safely get fit, and stay fit, as a cancer patient.

CBD oil

CBD oil, or cannabis oil, has become a popular home remedy for treating prostate cancer. Most people who use CBD oil also get traditional treatment for their cancer. Unfortunately, there have not yet been reputable studies on its use as a treatment.

This experimental treatment is only legal if medical marijuana is legal in your state and you follow proper procedures.


It’s important to keep doing the things you enjoy. Make new happy memories. Stay in touch with your close friends. Spend quality time with your family. Remember what you are fighting for; your life is more than just healthcare.


You’re very likely to develop prostate cancer, but it’s not likely to kill you. Of people who are diagnosed with prostate cancer, this is how many of them are alive in 5, 10, and 15 years:

5 yearsNearly 100%
10 years98%
15 years95%

Even when prostate cancer is incurable, you can live for a very long time with a terminal illness.

People who are diagnosed with prostate cancer that is contained within the prostate or has spread to nearby areas have a 5 year survival rate of nearly 100%. Once the cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, bones, or other organs, 1 in 3 men will still be alive in 5 years.

Of course, you aren’t 1 in X people, you’re an individual. Statistics can give you an idea of what to expect, but every person’s experience is unique. This is why your doctor may be reluctant to give you a clear idea of how long you have to live, your odds for successful treatment, and what to expect — there’s no way to know for sure what will happen to you.

Cancer treatments are improving all the time. 1 in 3 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1975 did not live to see 1980. Your odds are a lot better today.

Living with cancer: Quality of life

Pain management

Having cancer doesn’t mean you’ll be in pain. When you do experience pain, your treatment team can help you relieve it. There’s no need to be stoic — your doctors and nurses are there to keep you comfortable.

Many people are concerned about becoming addicted to pain medications. This is incredibly rare among prostate cancer patients. Talk to your doctor or pain management specialist about your concerns.


Blocking testosterone can increase the natural process of bone loss due to age, causing potentially serious problems. After having hormone therapy or an orchiectomy, you should make sure to get plenty of calcium and vitamin D. Your doctor or oncology dietitian can help you determine the right amount. Radiation therapy and certain types of chemotherapy can also decrease bone density. Your doctor can measure your bone density and provide you with medications.

You should not get more than 1,500 mg of calcium a day. Two servings of dairy a day will generally provide plenty of calcium without providing too much.

Stress and uncertainty

Living with the symptoms of cancer, treatment side-effects, and stress of dealing with a potentially deadly disease can be incredibly stressful.

Connecting with other patients and survivors can be incredibly helpful when dealing with the uncertainty of living with cancer. Most hospitals have support groups for cancer patients. Large hospitals will have groups specifically for prostate cancer. Even if support groups aren’t your style, get in touch with other people who’ve experienced prostate cancer in whatever way you feel comfortable.

Sex and masculinity

Prostate cancer’s impact on your ability to have sex the way you’re used to having it can be incredibly distressing. It can be helpful to talk to a counselor or psychiatrist who specializes in sexuality. Men find that they feel generally unhappy with life or less like themselves when their sex life changes dramatically for the worse.

Hormones have a huge impact on how you feel about yourself and your personality. Hormone therapy dramatically changes your hormone levels. It can also change the way you look and your sexual desire. Talk to your treatment team about the side effects and how you can cope. The side effects of hormone therapy have a huge impact on the traits men associate with their masculinity: virility, libido, strength, and endurance. It can be shocking for a man who’s had a high sex drive and an active sex life to suddenly find himself without any libido. Our sexuality is an important part of how we view ourselves.

Depression is a common side effect of hormone therapy, so don’t be ashamed to ask for a referral to a psychiatrist as soon as you start to feel down. You may also experience problems concentrating or remembering things.

Any prostate cancer treatment can make it more difficult for you to get and maintain an erection, not just surgery. In fact, 4 years after surgery, the rate of men who report ED is the same for both radiation and surgery. Doctors don’t understand why some men lose their ability to have erections while others don’t.

Some doctors believe that it’s important for men to get erections soon after surgery, often with the help of medications such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), or vardenafil (Levitra), to keep the tissue healthy. You can also use penile injections or vacuum devices to create an erection. It is thought that the increased blood flow to the penis helps the nerves heal, even if you aren’t able to get an erection. Many men find that they can orgasm without an erection. You can please your partner without requiring penetration.

Regardless of your ability to get an erection, you can still be sexual. Sexual touching, alone or with a partner, can help you feel like yourself and learn to feel comfortable with the changes your body is going through. Remember that you and your partner are going through a lot of stress and that changes in sexual desire may have nothing to do with appearances or skill. Talk to your partner and your urologist about your options.

You can learn more from the American Cancer Society’s guide on sexuality for men with cancer.

Incontinence and urine leakage

Incontinence and urine leakage is a temporary side effect for most men, but sometimes it’s here to stay. Up to half of men experience leakage a year after surgery. More experienced surgeons have lower rates of incontinence after surgery. It’s no shock that incontinence is a huge psychological burden.

Thankfully, most men who experience incontinence are able to regain control through pelvic muscle exercises, bladder control techniques, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, and medications. Avoiding caffeine can also help.

Your career

Some men work through prostate cancer treatment, while others are unable to continue working. This depends on what sort of career you have and how flexible it is, as well as what treatments you choose and how your body responds to treatments.

If you aren’t in pain or are able to manage your pain with medications that don’t interfere with your ability to think clearly, you may be able to continue working. You may find that you need to take breaks throughout the day because you have less energy.

Survivorship and preventing recurrence

Cancers that can’t be cured can often be managed like a chronic illness. Even when your cancer is cured, many cancer survivors are worried about it coming back. Learning to live with cancer can be very stressful.

Your treatment team can work with you to develop a survivorship care plan. This plan should outline what sort of follow-up tests are necessary and a schedule for monitoring your cancer status. It should clearly explain what side effects may last or even start after treatment has ended. Some treatment side effects appear years after treatment. Your doctor should explain what symptoms you should look for as a sign of recurrence or related health problems. It should also explain dietary changes and exercise regimens that can help reduce your risk of the cancer coming back. Cancer survivors have worse diets than people who’ve never had cancer.

Doctors commonly recommend PSA tests every 6 months for the first 5 years and once a year after that. Your treatment team may also recommend bone scans or other imaging tests. Prostate cancer may recur years after treatment, or you may develop a secondary cancer. Men who’ve had prostate cancer are more likely to get small intestine cancer, bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, thymus cancer, and melanoma. If you’ve had radiation, you are more likely to get rectal cancer or acute myeloid leukemia. This makes monitoring and follow-up care especially important.

It’s important to keep copies of your medical records. You will need these to make sure your treatment team always has access to the information they need, when they need it. Be sure to look over your medical records to check for missing information and errors.

wife concerned about her husband's health

For family, friends, and other caregivers

Talking about medical problems can be difficult for many men, so when it’s connected to their sexual function, it certainly doesn’t get any easier.

Caring for someone with prostate cancer

If someone you care about has prostate cancer, the first step is to talk to them and see how they’re doing. This can give you an idea of how you can support them. Remember, you can’t save your loved one. He’s still able to make his life choices and everyone is best off when those choices are respected.

Some people are eager for help researching their health and having company and support for doctors visits. Others aren’t. Don’t force it. On the other extreme, there’s no need to make cancer a forbidden topic. Pay attention to his response when you ask questions to see when your attempts to be helpful feel like prying and nagging.

People with prostate cancer often appreciate help around the house, with meals, with errands, and transportation to and from appointments. Walking the dog and helping with childcare can be a wonderful way to help.

Don’t turn your relationship into a chore. Keep doing the things you love to do together, even if you have to modify them or get creative. Dying of cancer is difficult, but this will not be a totally bleak experience. There is still joy ahead, even in the dying process.

One important thing is to not turn to the patient for support in dealing with your own struggles with their illness. You don’t need to keep a happy face all the time — in fact, you shouldn’t — but it’s best to seek outside support. Talk to your other friends and family members about how you feel. If your emotions are interfering with your life, or even if they’re not, working with a professional counselor can be incredibly helpful.

What kind of support do prostate cancer patients need?

When friends and family hear someone they care about has been diagnosed with cancer they want to help, but many people aren’t sure how to help.

Many men resist going to the doctor, even when they know something is wrong. Congratulate him on being brave and proactive about his health. Acknowledge that getting a cancer diagnosis is terrifying, but that most men with prostate cancer either never have to treat it or are successfully cured. There’s no need to start planning any funerals.

Don’t pressure someone to talk about their feelings. Let people know you’re there and ready to listen, if and when they want to. The most important thing is just being there. Do fun things together — and keep him company for the not-so-fun things.

Don’t force him to get healthy. Radical changes in diet and exercise can be traumatic when so many other things are going on. If you’d like to help him eat healthier, find healthier recipes of the foods he loves rather than trying to force him to eat different foods. That includes junk food. Sneak in a few more veggies. If he drinks lots of soda, help him to cut back gradually and experiment to find alternatives he enjoys drinking.

Don’t let cancer take over his life. Help him stick to his normal routine, hobbies, and activities as much as possible. Encourage him to continue doing the things that give his life meaning.

If you spend a lot of time with someone, you may notice that they’re not feeling well before they do. You may also spot side effects and other signs that something’s wrong. Check in to see if he’s feeling alright and encourage him to talk to his doctor or even seek emergency treatment if symptoms are serious enough.

Remember that it’s his body and his life. Express your concerns, but respect his decisions. Be sure to give him a chance to talk to his treatment team privately. That’s normal and doesn’t mean he’s trying to exclude you from his support team.

During diagnosis

Getting a prostate cancer diagnosis can be incredibly stressful, in part because it takes so long to get an official diagnosis. Waiting weeks or months to determine whether or not he has cancer, what stage it is, and what treatment is necessary is incredibly stressful.

Sometimes distraction is the best plan of action. Throwing himself into work or other projects doesn’t mean he’s in denial.

Remember that ultimately any treatment decisions are his decision. You can express your concerns and opinions, but once he makes a decision it’s your place to support him. There is never a single correct course of action in medicine, so whatever decision he makes is the right choice for him.

And, it’s a cliche, but don’t forget to take care of yourself. There are tools to help.

When not in treatment

Even when someone is not undergoing treatment, knowing he’s living with cancer can weigh heavily on his mind.

  • Be around to listen
  • Don’t forget to do the things you normally do together

During treatment

Don’t forget to treat him like a normal person. He’s not just an inspirational cancer fighting figure, he’s still the person he’s always been.

  • Giving rides to and from appointments
  • Help carrying out doctor’s advice, if they’re open to it
  • Help make sure he’s eating enough and staying hydrated
  • Help with household chores and yard work
  • Help caring for children and pets
  • Preparation of healthy meals and snacks
  • Be there to listen
  • Do things together, even if it’s just watching TV together

During recovery

Getting back to normal after prostate cancer can take months — or years. Some people never feel like their old selves again, which can cause feelings of grief as they adjust to their new lives.

  • If he is dealing with incontinence, choose seats and activities where there is easy bathroom access
  • Giving rides to and from appointments
  • Help carrying out doctor’s advice, if they’re open to it
  • Help make sure he’s eating enough and staying hydrated
  • Help with household chores and yard work
  • Help caring for children and pets
  • Preparation of healthy meals and snacks
  • Be there to listen
  • Do things together and help him get back to his normal activity level

As a survivor

Prostate survivors may find themselves worrying about the cancer coming back. They may still be coping with long-term effects of treatment and cancer, even as survivors.

  • Find ways to make reducing the risk of recurrence fun, like cooking together or going for a hike
  • Show compassion for his experience and support him

Anticipatory grief

Some men will live for years with terminal cancer. This can be incredibly difficult for families and friends to cope with. Knowing that someone will die of cancer and experiencing the rollercoaster of treatment success and failure can be devastating. Nothing can prepare you for the emotions of dealing with a long-term illness.

Therapy and other professional support isn’t just for patients. Don’t hesitate to get support for yourself.

Hospice & palliative care

Many families find that calling in hospice care early is a wonderful support system. Many hospice programs provide:

  • Visits from a nurse to answer questions and make sure the patient is comfortable.
  • Visits from a health aid to help with bathing and other tasks.
  • Assistance with acquiring and giving pain medications and other prescriptions.
  • Access to social workers and chaplains to help the patient and family prepare for the end of a life.

A home health aid can help you with bathing, toileting, and other tasks family members may be uncomfortable doing. Getting outside help is a great way to allow you to focus on being a family, rather than healthcare and personal care providers.

Understanding risk factors for prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is rare among men under the age of 40. The average age of diagnosis is 66.

African American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer. Native Americans and Asians have a lower rate of prostate cancer.

Men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer also have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.

your family history influences your risk of prostate cancer

If prostate cancer runs in your family

Screening for prostate cancer

If you have a family history of prostate cancer, you should start getting screened 5 years before the youngest first degree male relative was diagnosed. If there’s a genetic mutation involved, you should start getting screened no later than the age of 40. Genetic counseling is recommended if 3 or more relatives had aggressive prostate cancer or if there is a family history of breast, ovarian, or pancreatic cancer. When possible, family members with cancer are tested first.

These are just general guidelines, so you should talk to your primary care physician to determine when is the best time to start screening and discuss a referral to a genetic counselor.

Preventing prostate cancer

Unfortunately, prostate cancer has not been clearly linked to any preventable risk factors. Some cancers have well documented causes, prostate cancer does not. Cancer Research UK has an excellent guide to known and possible factors influencing your risk of developing prostate cancer.

Evidence suggests that maintaining a healthy weight reduces your risk of developing prostate cancer.

Eating a plant-based diet providing a range of nutrients and getting regular physical activity can reduce your risk for developing cancer in general, although we don’t know that it can reduce your chance of developing prostate cancer specifically.

Other prostate cancer resources

Prostate cancer guides

My Prostate Cancer Roadmap – Janssen Biotech, Inc.

Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Prostate Cancer – World Cancer Research Fund International

After Diagnosis: Prostate Cancer – American Cancer Society

What’s new in prostate cancer research? – American Cancer Society

Harvard Prostate Knowledge: Patient Perspectives – Harvard University

Supportive organizations

Urological Care Foundation

National Association for Continence

Prostate Cancer Foundation

The Caregiver Space

ZERO: The End of Prostate Cancer

Men Who Speak Up

Prostate cancer blogs

MaleCare: Advanced Prostate Cancer

Invasion of the Prostate Snatchers

Living with Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer InfoLink

The Palpable Prostate

Yet Another Prostate Cancer Blog

Originally published on Savor Health

Written by Cori Carl
As Director, Cori is an active member of the community and regularly creates resources for people providing care.

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  1. Thank you very much for this article you wrote .. everything I wondered about is quite clear.


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